Managing Resources Part One
Yo. Let’s talk about resources.
And I’m not talking about resources on the developer’s end. We’re not talking about the graphics you’re creating for your project, or your computer power, or any of that stuff. Oh no—we’re talking about in-game resources. The resources that your player has to work with while playing your game. Elements of gameplay that you, as the game designer, have to put some serious thought into.
Dictionary definition: “A stock or supply of money, materials, staff, and other assets that can be drawn on by a person or organization…”
Taking that definition over into video games, I’d say that a resource is a stock or supply of something that can be drawn on by the player. Of course, that definition leads to two obvious questions. One: what is the something? Two: why would the player draw on these resources?
Well, that’s what this article’s about.
Why are we talking about resources in the first place? What makes the subject worthy of an article?
First off, pretty much every game makes use of resources in some way or another. Even if the player isn’t actively managing his items or stat points, it’s likely that some aspect of the game is about converting some sort of resource into an advantage. Secondly, it seems like the implementation and balance of in-game resources is something that a lot of designers/developers don’t pay enough attention to. It’s easy for a game to feel like something is fundamentally off when it comes to balancing—and when it’s hard to figure out what exactly that something is, it usually comes down to a problem with the game’s resource systems.
Some games make more use of resources than others. And note that it’s not limited to RPGs, but games of all sorts of genres. In one game, the player might not spend any time at all thinking about how he uses the resources available to him. In another, resources are crucial to the gameplay. A platformer like Mario Galaxy might only make use of collectibles in order to open up new areas, where games like Starcraft or Magic: The Gathering are all about maximizing your resources.
Whichever approach you take, it’s important to put at least some thought into how your game handles these resources. If your game is a strategy game, or an RPG, then you’ll need to spend a lot of time working out just how to balance all the possible resource conversions available to the player.
That’s a key idea: conversion. A resource’s worth is directly related to how the player converts it into something else useful to him. For the most part, the resource will be converted into some way that helps the player proceed: like collecting enough stars to open a door, or earning enough skill points to allocate upgrades to a character’s stats. In plenty of cases, particularly in games that are more based around strategy, the player might be converting one type of resource into another. Later on, I’ll go a little more in-depth in the idea of resource conversion.
First, I want to talk about two major different types of resources that you might incorporate into your game.
The first type of resource that I want to talk about are the “physical” resources—aka things that the game makes obvious to players are resources. I call them “physical” because these are the kinds of resources that are specifically represented in the game. The player sees them and manages them: their presence is clear and obvious, tangible for the player.
Some common types of physical resources include:
These are resources that the player earns throughout the game—and the player will need to utilize them in order to overcome the challenges that the game presents. Typically, the more of a certain resource the player has, the bigger advantage he has in the game.
Limits are also resources. Consider inventory thresholds, or equipment slots. In an RPG, you might be able to equip a cool fire skill onto one character. But if you do that, then that slot is filled and you can’t also give him that cool ice skill—it has to go to someone else. This gives the player a sense of creative management that, when handled correctly, can add a lot of depth and fun to a game.
Some of these physical resources will be “pool” type resources. Rather than something that the player collects in the game, it’s something that the player uses through depletion. The best example: in typical RPGs, a character’s MP is also a type of pool resource. In pretty much any game, the player’s life points (life bar, HP, etc) is also pool resource. The maximum size of that pool might change over the course of the game, but the functionality is the same: instead of collecting and building that resource, the player has a default amount and draws from it.
Here’s an interesting experiment: think about different kinds of resources in your game, and how would the gameplay be altered if that resource were to be a pool resource or not. For example, imagine an RPG where the characters don’t have MP, but instead can only use skills by using items the player has acquired. Or the other way: a game where instead of collecting money, the player starts each in-game day with a certain amount of money, has access to that amount for that day, but it refills the next day—like a budget. It’s an interesting exercise to examine how you implement physical resources into your game, and might lead you to discovering a cool new mechanic that makes your gameplay really unique.
Unlike the physical resources, “invisible” resources aren’t immediately evident to the player. When the player sees that he needs to collect X gold in order to buy a weapon, that’s an obvious physical resource. But the invisible resources are typically build into the gameplay in a way where the average player won’t even realize that it’s a resource.
The best, and most common, example of an invisible resource is time.
Consider a turn-based RPG. While a novice player might not recognize it, each turn itself is a valuable resource—maybe the most valuable resource you have in a battle. Ever hear that saying, “the best defense is a good offense”? There’s a reason for that—if your enemy is dead, then they can’t hurt you. A single turn has a lot of value for that very reason: the player who maximizes each turn will have better success at the game. That’s why I encourage designers to make status effects and buffs/debuffs really matter. If the amount of overall benefit from a special effect ends up being less than simply attacking, then it’s not worth using up a turn on that effect. The player who makes the most out of every turn is maximizing the invisible resource of time.
Here’s another example. In Magic: The Gathering, the typical minimum deck size is 60 or 40 (depending on format). They important word there is minimum: really, a deck can have as many cards as the player wants. Good players, however, stick to that minimum. Playing a deck with more cards than the minimum is disadvantageous: you end up diluting your deck with extra cards, rather than getting the most out of it by only using the best cards available for your strategy. It’s a trade-off: if you want to have more options, you can go over the minimum, but the overall power level and consistency of the deck will be diminished. In other words, you’re not maximizing the resource of your card slots.
Within a game of Magic, the cards themselves become physical resources. But in deck construction, you have the invisible resource of the size of your deck, and how you use that resource is up to you.
One of the biggest difference between physical and invisible resources is that the beginner, or casual, player will likely not recognize the value of the invisible resource. It’s common for the beginning Magic player to play decks that have more cards than the minimum, because they see it as giving them more physical resources (cards) in the game. But the advanced player understands that the card slots themselves might be a more valuable resource in the big picture.
If you are able to craft an interesting balance between physical and invisible resources in your game, your gameplay will have more depth. The best games provide gameplay and challenges for players of different levels and skillsets.
This article’s a lot longer than I’d planned (this seems to happen quite a lot). Looks like this is gonna be another two-parter. In the next article, I’m going to dive deeper into the topic of resources: we’re going to talk about implementing them into your game, and how to ensure that everything is balanced. And most importantly, how to ensure that the player has fun while managing resources.
Managing Resources Part Two
This is part two. If you haven’t read part one, check it out now. So let’s continue our discussion about resources and resource management.
In the first part, I talked about different types of resources—primarily physical vs invisible resources—and how to recognize them, and how different types of players will recognize them and value them differently. Today we’re going to expand on that knowledge and go deeper into the implementation and balancing of those resources.
Resources in games is all about conversion. The transformation of one resource into power, or in order to advance through the game. Like collecting keys to open up doorways. Or one type of resource into another, like selling off items for gold, which you can use to buy different items.
There are two problems with the idea of resource conversion in games. The first problem is simple: it’s usually boring. Converting things is something that happens in science or math class in middle school. In order for it to be fun, the player needs to get something out of it. Making it fun comes down to the design of the resources and the gameplay around them. More on this later.
The other problem with conversion is in the balance of the costs. For the entire process to work, the player has to be willing to make the trade. The player needs to be getting a fair price—maybe even more than fair. Let’s look at this in terms of each of the types of resources discussed in the last article.
In terms of physical resources—let’s use a simple example from RPGs: gold. Over the course of the game, the player typically finds a lot of gold. Not only as battle rewards, but in chests, or from selling excess items. It’s not atypical for a player to accumulate more gold than he needs. Now, by the end of the game, I would say that this a good thing: the player feels accomplished—he feels infinitely wealthy, and that money is no object. At this stage in the game, money is a useless reward; if a player goes out of his way in the final dungeon for a chest that has a hundred gold in it, he feels cheated.
But the main point I want to make comes much earlier in the game. For the majority of the game, it’s not a good idea to give the player too much gold. If he has enough money to buy the best armor upgrades whenever he wants, and stock up on limitless potions, then money is meaningless. It’s a good feeling for the player to have in the endgame, but in the early and middle parts of the game, all it does is lessen the challenge. The real value of gold as a resource is that the player needs to manage it. If he has enough gold to buy everything he wants and more, then it’s a useless resource. All it does is waste his time when he goes to shops. However, if he has just enough to buy one or two pieces of equipment, but not enough for his entire party—he needs to think about how he’s going to plan for the next section of the game. He might always be able to grind for more gold, and in that case gold has a real value—he’s going to have to trade his time to get more of it. If he’s willing to make that trade, then he deserves to be able to buy the best equipment for his whole team. Giving the player that option is always a good idea, because it gives him the chance to get as much as he wants—or as little—out of the resource.
This is where it falls on the developer to carefully balance the cost of items in the game, and the amount of currency that the player has access to. Too much gold, with items that are inexpensive, and the game loses a significant amount of challenge. Too little gold, with items that require a lot of it, and the player will feel like he’s doing something wrong. Take the time, when playtesting your game, to note how much gold you have when you reach different areas. Make multiple playthroughs—sometimes intentionally skipping a chest of gold that some players might not find, and sometimes doing some extra grinding. Find an average.
Gold, as a resource, is completely useless to the player if there isn’t a good balance between cost and benefit. In this case, the cost isn’t the gold itself—it is what the player does to acquire the gold. The benefit is whatever the player spends the gold on. A player should be able to find a certain amount of gold “naturally”. In return for this amount, he gets the “expected” equipment and items when he reaches the next town. If the player has more gold, however, then he has the option of spending it in a way that gives him advantages going forward.
Gold’s an easy example, and probably one that you’ve thought about before. What about less obvious resources?
I briefly mentioned “pool” resources when talking about physical resources. Unlike the kind of resource that you acquire and sell/convert, it’s a resource that you have which you use up. The easy example of a pool resource is MP (SP/FP/whatever) in RPGs. Each character has a pool of magic that they use in order to cast their spells. It works a little differently than gold or items, but keeping it balanced has the same idea: cost vs benefit.
Let’s look at the inventory system in Deus Ex: Human Revolution. It’s a pool resource because you have a specific amount of inventory slots that you use. The more items you are carrying, the less open slots you have available. At some point in the game, you’re going to need to throw away some items.
It’s particularly interesting because, as your character levels up, you have the opportunity to expand the size of the inventory. At the beginning of the game, you have few inventory spaces, and it fills up quickly. When I play the game, expanding my inventory is my first priority when I level up. But that is optional: the player can instead upgrade something else when he levels up: maybe he wants increased health, or the ability to fall from heights without taking damage, or maybe he wants a cool cloaking ability (sure, in DXHR, levels are plentiful enough to unlock all of these things before the end of the game).
If you decide to spend your levels to access more inventory slots, you can carry more items (duh). It works well because, as you progress further into the game, you come across more items, and items that are heavier (they take up more space). Again, it’s a trade-off. The more powerful, cooler items require more inventory space than the smaller stuff, like handguns or medicine. If you want to hold all those sweet guns, you’re going to need to invest some levels into inventory expansion.
But even then, you can’t carry everything. And while I normally hate inventory limitations in games, it really serves a purpose in DXHR and actually makes the gameplay deeper. The reason for this is because your weapons and ammunition take up inventory space. You can’t carry every heavy weapon in the game—you simply don’t have enough room. You have to make a choice: do you really need that badass plasma rifle, if you have to leave behind the crossbow that you rely on for stealthy kills? Or, if you really want both, maybe you can drop the trusty sidearm and some medicine. Who needs that stuff when you have firepower, am I right?
Because one of the main selling points of the game is the way it allows—and even encourages—a variety of play styles, this type of decision-making enhances the gameplay. It’s done by forcing the player to really think about how he uses the resources he has available to him.
If DXHR had the same inventory management system, but didn’t include weapons and ammunition on the screen—forcing the player to spend time managing his medicine, powerups, and grenades, the system would have been horribly tedious and would have detracted from the gameplay. Instead, it compliments and enhances the gameplay by furthering the game’s themes of choice.
Like I said in the last article, the best example of an invisible resource is time, and in RPGs, that time usually amounts to turns.
I’ve talked about this in multiple articles before. Call me lazy if you want, but I like to think that I’m managing my own resource of time.
Here is the article where I go in-depth on the subject of the value of a turn: Read the section on status effects.
Making it Fun
At the beginning of this article, I said that one of the biggest problems with resource conversion is that it’s difficult to make it fun.
But this is a bigger subject than this article has space for. Looks like this one’s going to end up being a three-parter, after all.
See you next time, when we bring it all together and make resource management fun for the player.(source:finalbossblues)