不论是在Facebook，还是YouTube，FourSquare亦或是Google，一系列的Web 2.0网站都有可能让你获得游戏体验。很多以用户社区为基础的网站都已经实现了一些游戏机制，例如不少商业网站就采用游戏设计者吸引并留住玩家的途径来提高自身吸引力。这种网站游戏化现象始于Web 2.0时代，网站或应用设计者都在用这种方式提高产品的用户粘性，强化其传播效果。
游戏玩家心理学Bartle Test把大型多人在线角色扮演游戏《魔兽世界》的玩家分成了四种不同类型，但是这些类型却不适用于Web 2.0和社交网络的游戏玩家。在Facebook, YouTube, Gowalla, FourSquare, Bebo或LinkedIn等社交网站上可以根据心理因素划分出5种不同的游戏玩家。常驻于这些网站或经常使用智能手机应用的玩家们都或多或少拥有下述的特征：
对于YouTube, Facebook, Amazon, Twitter和Qype等以用户所创造的内容为基础的网站来说，创造者可以称得上是他们的生命线。用户孜孜不倦地在各种网站上创造着新的内容，例如发表博客，制作视频，上传照片或者写餐馆评述等都证明了这一点。如今的手机能够观看更高分辨率的照片，视频和文字，使得手机用户每天通过手机所创造的内容更是不计其数。
Are You Playing Games With Me? Social Network Game Mechanics
by Paul Thompson
Well Are you playing games with me?
Not only Facebook, but YouTube, FourSquare, Google and just about every Web 2.0 site out there are probably playing games with you. Many web based customer communities have realised that the game mechanics which game designers use to attract, hook and retain game players can be used by commercial web sites. This gamification of websites started with Web 2.0 as designers made their sites or apps more engaging, sticky and more viral.
Last year was the year of the location game when location based services (LBS) such as Gowalla and FourSquare helped introduce us to Social Networks where you could beat your friends and win “stuff”. Full blown social gaming emerged this year with Empire Avenue.
But all Social Networks are using game mechanics. Are you aware of this or not?
What are the game mechanics and how are they used by Social Networks?
Social media users fall into different player types. Players will engage with sites (and brands or apps) for longer and more frequently if their play type needs are satiated. People engaging in social network sites frequently play games without even realising it.
Social networks know that their players seek four reward types:- Status, Access, Power and Stuff. These four reward types become particularly desirable if they are exclusive and can’t be bought for money. An example of of such as desirable commodity include the prizes which radio stations give out to phone-in callers. A back stage pass, access all areas or facetime with a celebrity are things which are very desirable, but cannot be bought.
Leading Location Based Service Company FourSquare implement Game Mechanics really well. Players are rewarded with Mayorships, which cannot be bought or exchanged, they can only be earned through game play. Once the desirable status of Mayor has been obtained, it can bring further (real world) rewards, such as real stuff. Game play is extended as turf wars break out over ownership of the mayorship as players compete to stay on the top.
What type of player are you?
The Barlte Test categorises MMORPG World Of Warcraft type players into four categories, but this classification is incomplete for a discussion about Web 2.0 and Social Networks sites. The Barlte types are actually subcategories of “player” which is described below. There are five different psychological player types which engage in Social Networks such as Facebook, YouTube, Gowalla, FourSquare, Bebo or LinkedIn. Users engaging with these sites and their smartphone applications exhibit one or more of the following characteristics:-
Creators are the life blood of YouTube, Facebook, Amazon, Twitter, Qype and every other user generated content site. People seem to have an insatiable appetite for creating content, be that blogging, creating videos, uploading photographs or writing restaurant reviews. As we all now have a mobile phone capable of high resolution photo, video and word processing, millions of items of user generated content are being created every day.
The ratio of creation to consumption used to be 1% to 99%, but that ratio has now changed. Generation Z have grown up with devices capable of creating content which are connected to the internet. Generation Z users automatically create and store content without thinking twice.
Micro blogging and status update sites such as Twitter, Identi.ca, Tumblr have made it so easy to create blog content that content is continually being created, curated and distributed, rather than going via an editor or publisher.
Critics are an incredibly important group (25% Adult / 43% Youth). This player type loves to vote, rate, rank and review things. This includes not only the commenting and rating of the contributions and creations of others, but critiques and reviews of restaurants, bars, books, mp3s, white goods and every other type of object which can be rated or written about.
Web 2.0 shopping sites need Critics. People’s online shopping habits rely on the critics input. Recommendation sites and sites such as Amazon and eBay require or demand a review of a product or service (which is no bad thing). eBay Merchants place huge value on their reputation which is derivced solely form customer feedback.
Social Networks are usually founded on Collectors. This user type loves collecting objects such as friends, badges, ribbons, trophies or any other status symbol. Offline marketers have known for years that Collectors will return time and time again to collect an elusive “trophy” item such as the plastic collectibles which MacDonalds give out or breakfast cereal manufacturers insert in cereal boxes.
The percentage of Collectors does vary significantly based on gender. Women are more likely to be collectors than men, though for many men collecting football or baseball cards has been ingrained in their psyche since childhood.
FourSquare and Gowalla attract Collectors offering badges and ribbons for certain types of check-in. Collectors are easily motivated by acquiring and displaying their trophies (so sites need a trophy showcase).
Players are motivated by actual game play. This group is an important group, with 58% of youth and 25% of adults in this group. Although all of these categories are gamer players, the Players type here is a special sub-category. Players are motivated by a number of different factors depending on the type of player they are. These are the Bartle types mentioned above.
Players need to be given some task to perform, such as a quest, treasure hunt, quiz, puzzle or something more complex as found in massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) or Role Playing Games.
A common characteristic of the Player type (Achievers, Socialisers, Explorers) is that they need Spectators. If there is no where to show off their achievements, there is less motivation to play. Players may exhibit one or all of the following:-
Achievers are often quest driven, and are motivated by unlocking levels, discovering objects, solving puzzles and getting a score. Achievers need a leader table and bragging rights. FourSquare and Gowalla have incorporated Twitter into their apps, which broadcasts bragging rights to the players extended social graph.
Socialisers are more interested in the people and what they have to say or where they are rather than the actual game itself. Since Web 2.0, many apps and sites have leveraged social networking and it is this player type the businesses are targeting (knowingly or otherwise). By mashing up websites and apps with Twitter or Facebook, the social graph can be extended and many situations suddenly become “social”.
Explorers are often quest driven, and are motivated by discovering obscure objects or locations. Geo-caching games are an obvious example of games appealing to Explorers. Gowalla targets Explorers with Trips. Gowalla trip players visit a number of predefined spots, rather like a pub crawl. FourSquare rewards Explorers who unlock new locations.
Killer Players harass, hack, cheat and heckle. These players can be very competitive and in Social Games can cause havoc.
No game playing is successful without Spectators. The Achievers need someone to see what they have discovered, unlocked, solved or to see the score they have reached on the Collectors need someone to view their trophy cabinets and Critics need someone to read their reviews and comments.
Since many games, sites and apps are now mashed up with Twitter Facebook and other status or social networking sites, the playing field has been opened up to a much wider range of Spectators. Done well, this can attract new players to brands, sites and apps. Done poorly (think Farmville spam), it can drive people nuts.
FourSquare implemented a “share with friends” option, whereby player can choose whether to “annoy” their friends with bragging, or to genuinely engage spectators. Facebook’s news feed, is a cleverly sculptured feed designed for Spectators, whereas the latest updates is less useful and contains all events.
In the next post I will illustrate examples of how game mechanics are being used to increase stickiness, engagement and loyalty.（source:paulthompsonsblog）