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Chiritian Divine谈如何通过游戏表达自己的观点

发布时间:2017-07-07 11:06:00 Tags:,

本文原作者:Jem Alexander 译者ciel chen

现在游戏已经变得越来越多样化了,而且总有更多新的游戏在不断地出现。Jem Alexander同《生活真奇妙》开发者Chrisitian Divine聊了对游戏作为一种表达方式的看法。

游戏表现方式的多样性往往有不可思议的重要性。多亏了游戏产业现在对不用种族、不同性别、不同性向和不同文化拥有宽广的包容度——《生活真奇妙》就是一款能够高度体现这点的游戏,不仅如此,其中还有大量不同的人物和你想象不到能在游戏里接触到的感人事件。

Life is Strange(from develop online)

Life is Strange(from develop online)

《生活真奇妙(Life is Strange)》开发者Chiritian Divine说道:“我从90年代就开始做游戏编程了,所以我曾在游戏的发展史见过非常酷的游戏视角,不过也局限性也比较大。那时是以男性为中心的游戏视角,不过我知道那只是暂时的,因为游戏这个行业还很年轻,它正经历着电影行业在60年代曾经经历过的过渡期——所有的开发代码都在改变,游戏中有了更多的成人内容。我想游戏就跟其他艺术形式一样,它会发展到让需要表达自己的人们能通过游戏映射出自己的看法观点。”

“我觉得能把不同的观点表达出来,让人们觉得游戏跟大众的生活联系密切是非常重要的,我想这也正是《生活真奇妙》能如此成功的原因。让人觉得有趣开心的是——它让来自不同国家、不同种族、不同性别和文化背景人们能在这个游戏中感到彼此被关联在一起了。”

希望《生活真奇妙》收到的热情好评能够让开发者和发行商对游戏的多样性前景少一些风险担忧。“不只是《生活真奇妙》,现在还有很多其他的这类游戏。”Divine说:“像《Gone Home》和《Virginia》都是该类型游戏,这些新型游戏都在涉及着不同领域的问题与事件,并且我希望能有更多不同业界的人参与到这类游戏的多样性扩展开发中来。现在在这个游戏行业的全新领域里将有更多新领域的人参与进来。”

随着经验丰富的各行各业的有志之士加入到开发者行列中来,他们为游戏的进一步发展提供了故事情节、人物角色、背景设定。对于Christian Divine来说,这样的发展还带来了不同的游戏表达方式。“我把我自己的想法注入到游戏中,以David Madsen这个角色体现出来。我的父亲曾经当过兵,而我在军营里长大,所以对身为军人的父亲角色有种紧密相连的感觉。我有一点很重要的就是去保证David不要成为一个典型老套的患有PTSD(创伤后应激障碍)的退伍老兵角色。“我是有残疾的,因此对我来说以一种有尊严而不自傲的感觉来表现出残疾这个特点是非常重要的。”

“我所说的只能代表我个人,我无法深入地了解每个人对于自己是残疾人这件事会有怎样的看法,但是当Chloe以坐在轮椅上的形象出现的时候,我们是希望让玩家能通过熟悉这些在社交及身体上有缺陷的人,从而去体谅理解他们,我们希望人们能对他们抱有平等的而态度。如果玩家熟悉不来的话,至少我们能让他们察觉残疾是一些人必须面对的挑战,而这种挑战是人们之前不曾考虑过的。我们要让他们熟悉这个想法,就跟熟悉人们会去洗手间,会出门或者会去咖啡店一样。”

正如Divine所说,就算是在一个少数群体里,每个人的经历相互之间也都是完全不同的。你无法从一个单一角度来理解每个人的故事,但这也就是这个行业里之所以需要有各种各样创作者的原因——因为他们可以为游戏讲述自己的故事。当你作为一个少数群体成员把自己的经历投影在游戏里的时候,这种影响力实际上是非常大的(时常被低估)。

尽管Chiritian Divine还不需要用到轮椅来行走,但他的残疾让他感受到了那些需要用到轮椅的人们所做的挣扎。“从Chloe角度的残疾来看,我是天生只有一只手,这不需要用到轮椅,所以我的参照系完全不一样。但我知道在轮椅上人们的感受,我可以理解到他们在经受着怎样的阻碍。我能做到感同身受。我认为这种感同身受是作为一名作家应该具备的特质。”

这种身为作家的通感在刻画角色的真实性时尤其重要,因为只有这样才能让玩家也用他们自己的同情与通感来进行回应。来自世界各地的人都深深地喜欢上了Max和Chloe这两个角色,而这正也确实证实了Divine创造这些可爱人类角色的能力。

“你让自己设身处地地想:‘好吧,如果我残疾了得用轮椅,那我去洗手间的话都要怎么办?’这跟简单的起床然后走进另外一个房间完全是两码事——然后你就进入了即兴反复想象中了。从Chloe的角度来看,这个游戏就是关于这些内容以及在Chloe的处境下被区别对待从而被排挤时的所思所感的讨论。”

“我觉得残疾人是这个世界上人员最多的少数群体,然而这个群体的纽带不是文化、性别、种族或者其他任何。站出来为残疾人讲话的人很少,因为对于这个群体只从一个角度来说是不行的,它们是无法光从文化、性别的角度观点就能说清楚的。而我却能够把我所看过的残疾人经历和我(作为残疾人)被人对待的方式投射在游戏人物上,通过这些角色来为残疾人发出一些声音。”

“这些经历不只是残疾人的,还有有色人种、女性、变性人或者其他任何少数群体都有着各自的悲惨遭遇。只要你跟主流人群不一样,你就要被区别对待。不过即便他们对自己的障碍什么也不说,我相信来自全国各地的人们最后都能理解他们。”

所以要怎样把非白人角色、异性恋角色、男性等角色最好地结合起来放到游戏里呢?简单地说,就是要有根据性和敏感性。

“不要让情绪的表达过与简单和张扬。别让Chloe的人设成为‘轮椅上的凄惨世界’,因为那都不是这些处境的人的自我感受。”我也认识一些生活精彩、精力充沛的人们。但他们也不过是人类而已——就像我可以是残疾人但我照样也能是个混蛋。

“作为一名作家你就会想展现出你刻画的人物的方方面面。你会不希望人只有英勇的一面或者只有讨厌的一面。要把他们当做人类来创作。”

“即使有人一开始不喜欢David Madsen,但最后很多玩家都喜欢上了这个角色,这是我喜闻乐见的事实。当然也有人始终对他没爱,这也无可厚非。因为这个游戏最棒的地方就在于他能带给每个玩家不同的认知看法,这些不同是基于每个玩家的通感或同情或愤怒或其他的情绪所产生的。”

“不过最主要的还是不要让情绪表达过于迸发。不要把自己推到作者的高度来用简单的方式来解决复杂的现实问题,不要在一些很老套熟知的反应和情节上浪费时间,试着超越这些套路。”至于应该什么时候采用这些人物和主题?答案是什么时候都可以。人们将在你的游戏的帮助下渡过自我认识的艰难时期,或在游戏人物身上找到深度共鸣感,从而更好地看清自己,变得更加坚强。无论是哪种方法,你都将对那些基本不被包容的群体建立起连接的桥梁。

Divine称:“表达真的非常的重要。这个世界如此之大,而它不会只表达出一种观点。《生活真奇妙》里不会有也没想着要有所有的答案。不过要记住游戏中真正重要的是——要有能力去表达不同的观点、不同的文化、不同的表现。”

本文由游戏邦编译,转载请注明来源,或咨询微信zhengjintiao

Diverse representation in games is incredibly important. Thankfully the games industry is at the point now where the inclusion of different races, genders, sexualities and cultures is becoming more and more commonplace. One title which excelled at this was Life Is Strange which, as well as having a wide variety of characters, touched on some issues that you wouldn’t necessarily expect from a game.

“I’ve been writing for games since the 90s,” says Life Is Strange’s writer, Christian Divine. “So I’ve seen the arc of game development history turn away from a very cool point of view, but also very limited. It was a male-centric point of view, but I knew things would change because gaming is a very young medium. We’re at a point where the film industry was, say in the 60s, when all production code changed and you could have nudity and violence and cursing and all of these more adult issues. I think that with gaming, it’s like any other kind of art, it’s got to develop and get to a point where all people that need to be represented can start feeling like gaming reflects their point of view.

“It’s important to show these different points of view and to make people feel like the games are representing a wide swathe of the public, and I think that’s why Life Is Strange was so successful. What was so pleasing and interesting is how people around the world, across race and gender and culture, seemed to embrace the game and feel a connection.”

Hopefully the warm reception that Life Is Strange received will make diversity in games less of a risky prospect for devs and publishers. “So many games are doing this now, it’s not just Life Is Strange,” says Divine. “Gone Home and Virginia, for example. All these new games coming out are now touching upon all of these different issues and I expect there to be even more variety based on how many more people will be developing games. Now you have a whole new area, a whole new level of people entering the game world.”

With this variety of developers comes a wealth of experience which can inform stories, characters and settings for games moving forward. For Christian Divine, this came in some important forms. “I brought my own point of view to the game in terms of David Madsen,” he says. “My dad served in the military and I grew up on military bases, so I have a direct connection to having a military man for a father. One thing that was important to me was to make sure that David wasn’t the typical cliche?, angry PTSD veteran. “I’m partially disabled so it was also very important to me to represent disability in a way that’s not condescending.

You have to represent, you just have to

Christian Divine, Writer

“I can only speak for myself, I can’t go into everybody’s point of view of how they are as a disabled person, but certainly when it came to Chloe’s representation in the wheelchair, we wanted to make sure that we were doing justice to people who have these social and physical obstacles and present them in a way that hopefully makes the player relate to them if they’re familiar. And, if they’re not, maybe give them an insight as to the challenges that people have to face. The things that we don’t think about. Just the idea of going to the bathroom, or going to the door or going to a cafe.”

As Divine says, even within a minority group, one person’s experience may be completely different to another’s. It’s impossible to get across everyone’s story from a single viewpoint, but that’s why it’s important to have a variety of diverse creators involved in the industry. So people are able to tell their own stories. It’s so easy to underestimate the impact of seeing yourself reflected in your favourite games as a member of a minority group.

But even though Christian Divine doesn’t need a wheelchair to walk, his own disability makes him cognisant to the struggles of those who do. “In terms of Chloe’s disability, I was born with one hand,” he explains. “It’s not being in a wheelchair, so I have a totally different frame of reference. I know people in wheelchairs, to the degree that I can understand what obstacles they go through. I’m empathetic. As a writer I think you need to be empathetic.”

This empathy as a writer is really the most important thing when it comes to drawing your characters as real people, in a way that will get players to react to them with their own sympathy and empathy. People all over the world fell in love with Max and Chloe and that’s a testament to Divine’s ability to create loveable, human characters.

“You put yourself in the point of view: ‘okay, if I was in a wheelchair and I had to use a restroom, what does that involve?’ That’s not just getting up and walking into another room, that’s a whole other issue. And so you have to riff off that. In terms of Chloe it’s talking about these issues and how Chloe feels abandoned by people because of her condition and she’s treated differently.

“I feel like people who are disabled are the biggest minority in the world, but it’s a minority that’s not bound by culture or gender or race or anything. There’s fewer people who speak out for the disabled, because it doesn’t just represent one point of view. It’s not a cultural point of view, it’s not a gender point of view. I was able to bring something of that to the character in terms of how I have seen people with disabilities treated and how I have been treated.

“It’s not just disabled people, if you’re a person of colour, if you’re a woman, if you’re trans, anything. If you’re different from the group, you’re going to be treated differently. And I think we all understand in the end, people all around the world, even if they don’t share these obstacles, they understand them.”

So what’s the best way to integrate non-white, straight, male, etc. characters into your work? In short, do it for a reason and with sensitivity.

“Don’t be exploitive. Don’t try to go for the easy emotion. Don’t try to paint Chloe as ‘woe is me, I’m in a wheelchair’, because that’s not necessarily how people in these situations perceive themselves. I know dynamic individuals who live really amazing lives. But they’re also people. They’re just people. I can be disabled and still be an asshole.

“As a writer you want to present all aspects of that personality. You don’t want people to be heroic only, or only bad. Just make them human.

“Even if you don’t like David Madsen at first, I love the fact that many players grow to really love him. And some people don’t love him at all and that’s totally valid too. That’s what’s fascinating about the game, everybody brings their own point of view and the outcome is based on their own empathy or sympathy or anger, or whatever the emotion.

“But the main thing is just not to be exploitive. Not to go for the very simple solution to complex realities and to push yourself as a writer, to go beyond what would be the obvious response or obvious scenario.” As for when these characters and themes should be included? There’s never a wrong time. People will see themselves in your games and will be stronger for it. It could help them through a tough time of self-realisation, or simply be a character who resonates with them on a deeper level. Either way, you’re connecting with people who may not experience inclusion on a regular basis.

“You have to represent, you just have to,” Divine states. “The world is a big place and it doesn’t just represent one point of view. Life Is Strange doesn’t have all the answers, nor is it intended to, but the fact that we were able to present different points of view, different representations, cultures, it’s really important in games.” (source:develop online


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