在Steam Early Access平台发行游戏的经验教训
两年前我们在Steam的Early Access平台上发行了《动作影星亨克》。一年后当我们完成游戏创造后便离开了Early Access。去年我们发行了游戏，并且拥有足够的时间去反思我们在Early Access上的表现，我将自己的一些想法记了下来希望对那些打算在Steam Early Access上发行游戏的开发者有所帮助。
现在的Early Access还不是最让人信任的平台，这也是我为何觉得必须与你们分享自己的经验教训的原因，如此其他开发者便可以更好地利用在Early Access上的时间。有许多工作室都不能有效地执行Early Access发行，并因此导致许多玩家对Early Access避而远之。而如果能够做好在该平台上的发行，它将带给游戏很多益处。
首先你需要做的便是明确你到底需不需要Early Access。Early Access有很多优点：在开发期间能够带给你社区反馈，能够较早创造收益，在游戏发行时便拥有一个社区，能够提高游戏的曝光度，当你真正完成游戏时你将是在经历第二次发行过程。
虽然这些优点听起来很吸引人，但它同时也伴随着不可小觑的风险：玩家可能对游戏留下糟糕的初印象，除非你做些什么特别的尝试否则媒体往往不会对Early Access感兴趣，维持一个社区需要你投入大量的时间，你需要频繁地发布更新内容，有可能因为较早的发行而导致你最终发行变得没什么用了。你还必须确保你的游戏是否足够适合Early Access。你的游戏需要匹配一个能让你快速创造更多机制并利用在Early Access上的时间去添加更多内容的模式。
最后一个同时也是最大的一个风险便是，在你进行Early Access期间游戏的收益是没有保障的。你可以在Early Access平台上发行游戏，你也会发现有无数原因会导致游戏销量不理想。但是一旦你在Early Access上发行了游戏，你便对那些购买了游戏的玩家做出了承诺，即你一定会完成这款游戏。所以在此之前你必须确保自己从心理上和财政上都做好了准备。
我并不能提供给你们这个问题的答案，但我可以提供给你们一些相关建议。我将在此列出我们从《动作影星亨克》在Steam Early Access上的发行所学到的一些最重要的经验教训。
也许这听起来再明显不过，但是最初的Early Access架构必须包含你的游戏的真正核心机制。即使没有图像，音频，特效，关卡编辑，角色定制，内容等等，你的游戏也有可能获得成功。但是当你在创造一款和《动作影星亨克》一样的跑酷平台游戏时，你便需要在最初的架构中呈现出适当的平台游戏机制。如果你的核心机制全部呈现于游戏中并且非常接近于最终成品，用户便会有“虽然还不完整，但是这款游戏真的很棒！”的想法，而这便是你选择Early Access以及大多数玩家会接受你的游戏的原因。
在《动作影星亨克》中，我们便广泛使用了分析系统。我们使用分析系统去完善游戏的一个例子便是我们在设置获得奖牌所需要时间的时候。在《动作影星亨克》中，玩家必须尽快到达短道终点才能获得铜牌，银牌，金牌或彩虹奖牌。在最初游戏版本中，获取奖牌所需要的时间是随机的。但是在游戏发行后排行榜逐渐被填满，我们便发现在某个关卡获得金牌似乎太过简单，而在其它关卡中获得奖牌又太过困难。我们希望的是每个玩家都能够获得铜牌，80%的玩家能够获得银牌，50%的玩家能够获得金牌，而只有3%的玩家能够获得彩虹奖牌。为了做到这点我们记录下了每个玩家获得奖牌的情况并在整个Early Access过程中不断调整玩家获取奖牌所需要的时间。如果我们发现20%的玩家在一个关卡中获得了金牌，我们便需要降低金牌获取难度。下面的图表便是我们在Early Access的一个游戏架构。
不要玩家社区说什么就去做什么，不管他们的建议听起来多优秀。进行Early Access本来就会增加你的项目时间，所以不要再浪费更多时间去创造那些不值得投入更多开发时间的功能。再创造每个功能前你必须问自己：“这一功能是否能够提升游戏价值并为它创造更多销量？”如果答案是“可能不行”，那么你就需要再三考虑是否要创造这一功能了。我们便未能有效执行这一要点从而将原本计划的5个月Early Access时间延长到了13个月。因为玩家社区的建议我们一而再再而三地往游戏中添加更多功能。下图便是我们所添加的各种功能。需要注意的是Steam上的大多数游戏往往只拥有该列表中的5，6，7项内容，而即使我们删除了一半的内容也不会影响游戏的销量。只是我们太难开口去拒绝玩家的提议。
当你决定离开Early Access时，你需要呈现给人们一些惊喜。你需要提供给媒体一些全新的新闻，你也希望那些之前看过游戏的人能够重新回来尝试全新内容。如果你只是删除了游戏的”Early Access“标签并期待着游戏能够获得巨大销量，你可能要失望了。关于《动作影星亨克》我们的做法是隐藏了一些我们正在创造的内容从而在游戏发行时能够带给公众一些惊喜。《动作影星亨克》的前半部分拥有35个发生在孩子卧室的关卡。于此同时我们也致力于创造另一个发生在室外的环境。没错我之前的确说过你们应该确保开发过程的透明公开，但是为了在发行当天呈现出惊喜你有必要拥有一些小秘密。
What Action Henk taught us about launching on Steam Early Access
by Lex Decrauw
Two years ago we launched Action Henk on Steam’s Early Access platform. One year later the game was done and we left Early Access. In the past year that our game has been out we’ve had plenty of time to reflect on how we handled Early Access and I’ve compiled my thoughts into a list of guidelines for developers who are thinking about releasing their game on Steam Early Access.
Early Access doesn’t have the greatest reputation right now and that’s why I believe it’s important to share experiences so other developers can use them to make the most out of their Early Access time. There are plenty of studios out there who don’t do Early Access right and they are causing players everywhere to turn away from Early Access as a whole, while, if done right, it can be great for the quality of a game.
Determine if Early Access is a good match for your game
The very first thing you need to do is to find out is whether or not you actually need Early Access. Early Access comes with a lot of advantages: community feedback during development, generate revenue sooner, have a community built up when the game launches, hype/exposure, and you get a second launch moment when you finish the game.
The advantages sound nice, but they come with great risks which shouldn’t be underestimated: players might get a bad first impression, press is usually less interested in Early Access unless you’re doing something extraordinary, maintaining a community takes a staggering amount of time, you have to release updates frequently, and you have a chance that the final launch ‘bang’ isn’t going to do much because you’ve already had a launch moment earlier. You also have to make sure that your game is a good fit for Early Access. Your game needs to fit a model where you can quickly create the core mechanics and use the bulk of your time in Early Access to add content.
The last risk, and probably the biggest one, is that revenue is certainly not a guarantee during your Early Access period. You can launch the game in Early Access and there are a million reasons why sales could fall short. However, once you do launch on Early Access you’re making a promise to the players who have bought your game that you are going to finish what you’ve started. You have to make sure that you are mentally and financially prepared to deal with a rough start.
The big question you have to ask yourself is: “Is my game concept special enough to justify taking the above mentioned risks?”
I can’t answer this question for you, but I can offer you my advice when you decide to go through with it. I will list below the most important things we’ve learned during the time we had Action Henk in Steam Early Access.
The very first Early Access build
It’s going to sound obvious but the very first Early Access build absolutely has to contain the core mechanics of your game, as final as possible. You can get away with your game missing parts of the art, audio, special effects, level editing, character customization, content, etc. But when you’re making a speedrunning platformer game, like Action Henk, you’re going to need proper platforming mechanics in your first build. If your core mechanics are all in the game and tweaked to (near-) final quality it will make the user say: “This game feels great! There’s just not a whole lot of game.” And that’s okay! That’s why you’re in Early Access and the vast majority of your players will accept this.
Farm all the data
Some players are going to give you feedback on forums or social media, but for the most part you’re going to have to actively look for feedback. This is because most of the players are just gamers who bought a game they think they’ll enjoy playing. Giving feedback takes effort and that’s not something you can blindly expect from your player base.
Asking players what they think of your game is one way to get feedback, but this takes a lot of time to get a relatively small amount of useful data. Also I would advise any developer, in Early Access or not, to build in an analytics system because this gives you facts and undeniable data which can help you tweak your game.
In Action Henk we used analytics everywhere. A good example of where we used analytics to improve the game is when we were setting medal times. In Action Henk the player has to reach the end of a short track as fast as possible to get a bronze, silver, gold, or rainbow medal. In the initial version of the game these medal times were arbitrary values, values we felt were right. After launch the leaderboards started filling up and naturally we found out that for some levels it was too easy to get a gold medal, where on other levels it was way too hard. In the ideal scenario we wanted pretty much every player to be able to get a bronze medal, ~80% of the players should be able to get silver, ~50% should be able to get gold, and ~3% should be able to get the hardcore rainbow medal. To get to these percentages we logged the medals scored by every player and adjusted the times required for the medals throughout Early Access. If we saw that only 20% of players were getting a gold medal on a level we knew that we had to make the gold medal time easier to obtain. The table below shows the data from one of our later Early Access build, the percentages are right about where we wanted them.
This is just one example of analytics but you want to keep track of everything. You want to know where players die, which levels they have trouble completing, which characters they play, etc. Track everything that could even be remotely useful.
For keeping analytics you can use several existing systems. In Action Henk we used a combination of GameAnalytics and Steam’s statistics system but there are a ton of plugins available for whichever engine you’re using. We always work in Unity and it now comes with an analytics system out of the box, we’re currently giving it a go for our next project and it seems to work great so far.
Keep your community in the loop
Try to keep your development process as open as possible. Your community needs constant assurance that the half-finished game they bought is going to be finished at some point. The last thing you want is an angry mob who think you’re not working on the game they spent their money on. This means that you have to do frequent updates, interact with players on the forums, make a dev blog or vlog, and show the players what you’re working on. You’ll have to show the players that you’re hearing them.
While listening to your players is important, it’s just as important that you avoid a situation where you’re doing everything they ask. The group of players you’re talking to on the forums is the vocal minority of your playerbase. They usually represent the people who are extremely happy with your game and want to express that, and the people who have a new suggestion every time they play. Learning to deal with these people in the right way is probably one of the most crucial skills to have while you’re in Early Access. These are some of the things to keep in mind:
Never make promises. The community remembers every single word you say, and they won’t be afraid to use your own words against you. It’s also incredibly easy for someone to misinterpret something you say so try to be as clear as possible. If someone suggest you develop feature X and your response is “That sounds great, we should do that!” they’re going to expect you to make the feature. If you then decide that you’re not going to make that feature you’re going to have to let them down and this is always a hard thing to do. This brings me to my next point.
Don’t do everything the community suggests, no matter how good their ideas sound. Doing Early Access is going to add time to your project, so don’t add even more time to that by creating features which are nice to have, but not really worth the development time. Before creating each feature you should think to yourself: “Is this feature going to increase the value of my game in a way that leads to more sales?” and if the answer is “Probably not” then you should be careful about creating that feature. This is something we didn’t do and it more than doubled our time in Early Access, we went from a planned 5 months to 13 months in Early Access. We just kept adding feature after feature because when someone suggested a cool feature our response was “Should we create it? Why not, let’s go.” This resulted in the feature list seen below. Note that most games on Steam have about 5, 6, or 7 items in this list, not 14. We could scrap half of the items on this list and our game would have worked just as well and most likely would have sold the same. It’s just that we were terrible at saying no to our community in our quest to keep them as happy as possible.
Knowing when to leave Early Access and what to keep in mind
If you managed to stick to your development schedule it’s going to be easy to decide when to leave Early Access. However for most studios the schedule changes dramatically and constantly during development. The biggest reason for this is that the game’s design is constantly evolving because of community influence. You’ll always be left with a list of features that would be nice to have in your game, and it’s easy to just pick an item off that list and start developing it. Your game is never going to feel entirely done, this makes it hard to put a deadline on your project, and this is even harder if your game is already generating revenue. Whether or not you should continue developing comes back to the question we’ve asked ourselves earlier in this article. “Are these features going to increase the value of my product in a way that leads to more sales?” and if the answer is not a firm “Yes”, it might be time to bring your development to an end.
When you’ve decided to leave Early Access you’re going to want to do so with a big bang. You need to give the press something new to write about and you want people who’ve seen the game before to come back to something new. If you’re just going to remove the ‘Early Access’ label and expect a big number of sales then you’ll be left disappointed. The way we did this with Action Henk was by hiding some of the things we were working on so we could release them as a big surprise at launch. The first half of Action Henk has 35 levels in a children’s bedroom environment. Behind the scenes we were working on an outdoor environment and another 35 levels. I know, I just said you should have an open development process and show everything to your players, but it’s great to have some sort of surprise on launch day and that requires a little secrecy.
Early Access is quite a commitment and you need to enter it with a plan. Be prepared with a solid build of your game, treat your community well, learn from them and you’ll be rewarded with lifelong fans.
Launch the first build with the core mechanics as finalized as possible. Use the Early Access period to add content.
Go crazy with analytics, track absolutely everything.
Be there for your community. Listen to them, and know when to not listen to them. Be open and honest about your development process.
Don’t keep working on your game just because you can, set a deadline.
Launch with a bang!（source：gamasutra）