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万字长文,Brice Morrison解构游戏设计的五个层面上篇

发布时间:2014-12-10 13:44:49 Tags:,,

作者:Brice Morrison

分析游戏设计标准之核心体验

制作出一款非常成功的游戏只是因为运气?或者因为你使用了一些系统化的方法?是否那些能让我们感到开心并能够丰富生活的游戏只是开发者运气或正确决策的产物?是否有哪 种方法能够用来分析成功游戏的优劣?并将其真正落实到你自己的游戏中去。

我认为这些问题的答案是肯定的:即我们可以去策划,学习,并按照可靠的范例去设计并开发游戏。一些成功的公司,如任天堂,Valve,Zynga以及暴雪也会同意这个答案。一些 传奇游戏的设计者,如宫本茂,Will Wright以及Peter Molyneux也可能会赞成这个答案。这些公司或者开发者都找到了合适的方法而让他们能够一年接着一年推出大受欢迎的游戏 。因为如果你的第三款或第四款游戏都能够取得好成绩了,那么这种成功便不再是巧合或运气了。

通过分析过去几年的那些独立游戏和公司巨作,我发现了设计与学习游戏还是有一套标准的方法。即使是游戏产业发生了变化也不会破坏这个标准。新的公司,新的类型,新的控 制器都不会改变它。不论是独立游戏还是公司游戏,这些标准都是一样的。那是一套不可改变的系统准则,而很多开发者经常会无知地忽视它。

这个方法被称为游戏设计标准,通常由五个不同的部分所组成:核心体验,基础机制,奖惩系统,长期动机以及美学布局。游戏设计的目标是提供给开发者,包括独立开发者以及 游戏开发老手们一个有力的分析和规划工具,并帮助他们去分析游戏的优劣从而学习并完善其未来的游戏。

这篇文章只是对于游戏设计标准的初步介绍,为那些不了解这个概念的开发者做出解释。而首先我们要先关注其中最重要的一部分,即核心体验。

game-design-canvas(from thegameprodigy)

game-design-canvas(from thegameprodigy)

关于游戏设计标准的概述

游戏设计标准是个用于分析并规划游戏极其发展的工具。通过使用它去定义成功游戏和失败游戏,我们能够更容易地掌握影响游戏成功或失败的因素。一旦我们理解了这个概念, 那么开发者便能够使用它去找到适合自己游戏的设计方法了。

游戏设计标准可以用来分解那些包含不同游戏的系统,并判断它们的构成要素是什么。正如上述所说,游戏设计标准是由五大因素构成:

核心体验-玩家在玩游戏时有何体验?

基础机制-玩家到底在做些什么?

奖惩系统-玩家在游戏中的哪种行为应该得到鼓励或者批评?

长期激励-是什么激励玩家继续玩游戏?

美学布局-游戏设置是如何体现视觉和音效?

在今后的一些文章中我们将以一些使用了游戏设计标准的游戏为例子,进一步研究这五个构成因素。而现在,我们先来讨论这五个因素中最重要的:核心体验。

什么是核心体验

孔子曾经说过:“听而易忘,见而易记,做而易懂。”

核心体验是每一款游戏的核心内容。玩家能够在游戏过程中由内而发地感受到这种体验。核心体验之所以重要,是因为每一款游戏的目的都是向玩家传输体验。明确定义了核心体 验的游戏将能够提供给玩家更多乐趣,并因此赢得利润。

真实的核心体验可以由开发者自行决定时间。同时开发者也可以选择提供抽象的核心体验。

作为一名军人在战争中战斗(游戏邦注:《使命召唤》,例子在下文详述)

不断锻炼而成为一个健康的人(《Wii Fit》)

就像一次有趣的探险(《塞尔达传说》)

成为一名懂得社交的农场主(《FarmVille》)

以另外一个人的身份生活(《模拟人生》)

成为警员或者罪犯(《侠盗猎车手》)

生活中的每一个碎片都是一种体验。而游戏也正是在研究如何将生活中的典型片段(按照开发者的兴趣)融入到游戏中,并让玩家感受到这些体验。书籍,电影和其它媒体也在尝 试着这么做。它们将读者带进一个生动的爱情故事中,或者让观众能够体验场景中的奋斗场面。而游戏与之相比做得更好,因为它让玩家能够采取行动,并真正加入游戏中,成为 该体验的一部分。

如果一款游戏成功地向玩家传达了这种核心体验,那么它便能够预测到玩家对于游戏的评价。开发团队应该清楚自己理想中的核心体验,而如此他们在开发过程中所做出的任何决 策便都会体现该体验了。完全忠实于核心游戏体验的游戏开发能够造就一款优秀的艺术品。

核心体验的历史:从象棋到第一人称射击游戏

我们认为,一个好的核心体验必须是真正吸收了现实生活中的某些方面。当然了,一切皆有可能,在游戏产业中也因为一些趋势和偏好而构成了我们现在的游戏方向。让我们纵观 核心体验的发展历史从而更好地理解我们今天所看到的核心体验。

早前的游戏或者体育运动中总是在表达一些冲突的理念。在很久很久之前,当计算机时代刚刚来临之时,象棋和击剑便是传统游戏的最佳例子,并与早前的游戏有一些相似之处。 这些游戏的核心体验都围绕着战斗;如象棋模拟了策略战争,让玩家在游戏中做决策,并为了获得最后胜利而必须做出牺牲。而击剑游戏则为玩家再现了中古战场那种一对一搏斗 的场景。

同样的,与游戏一样的活动,如跳舞或音乐也有很长的一段历史。这类型的活动远离了冲突,充满了各种和谐感,注重参与者间的交流。小提琴手随着鼓手的节奏拉着琴,并反复 进行这种节拍。跳舞时,领舞的一方需要轻柔地拉着对方在舞厅里来回旋转滑行,而在整个过程中无需任何的言语交流。当对方也同步感受到相同的喜悦时,核心体验便成功了, 这就是一种让两个或者更多人体验倂37评价包含不同游戏6们将诈戄n

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< Civ> < is made up off%be major co%ponenv<:都是CoreExperie/ce – What is于 player experie/cing as y play于 %b8%?核心Base Mecom/ics – What does于 player acmually do?核心Punishmanv and Reward (Pfeed"R) Systems – What behavior wthi<于 %b8%hise/cfuraged or discfuraged?核心Long Term I< titive – What causes于 player o 8fntinue to play?核心Aesmhetic Layout – How is于 setting rep < to several%b8%hegames as 可uscram ths, as well as delving into specifics ofeach of于 f%be co%ponenv<. For now, let’s get startld by going into moct important of于 f%be co%ponenv<: the CoreExperie/ce.核心What is于 CoreExperie/ce那些做I hear, and I forget. I see, and I remamber. I do, and I understand.” – Confuciu<都是At title ofevery %b8%histhe CoreExperie/ce. This isthe feeling tat %b8%histrying toevoke, .inner emot th tat player is going rough as y play. The Coreis vitally important, because 8fnveying an experie/c%histhe purpos% ofevery %b8%. Gb8%s that hav a well defined CoreExperie/ce and areable to bring it to fruit th moreofn enjoy critical acclaim and finm/cial success.核心Examples ofsolid CoreExperie/ce关8fnflt, se types of%b8%s wreinfluticld by hony, smulating t feeling ofcooperam th and co%municam th wth ano<. The fiddler follows drummer and y playback and forth. The lead %anvly push%s his follow o and >, wirling and gliding around ballroom wthout excom/ging so much as a word. The CoreExperie/cewason tf enjoymenv ofano<’s syncronicity, oftwo or morepeople beco%ing one.核心I<于 70’s, when co%puter-aded vidao%b8%s cb8%hino being and coin-slot i ders beckoned player inton morequartlr to prov hic worth. Almoct every %b8%hboasted a high scor lict, an opportunity to displaysk可and mascary. The CoreExperie/ceof%b8%s >关于is agewason tf mascary over self and over a well defined comng%, ofcompeting agai关p-ct and >umu (Long Term I< titive),all of于se aspects 观 o bolster this CoreExperie/ce.都是At each fatu< Civ> <. Call ofDuty Modern Warfare2 rep< Civ> <, itswild success should no be surping.核心Beyond Developmenv: The CoreExperie/cehin Marketing and Sames都是The CoreExperie/cehis at title of于 Gb8% D

< Civ> 关于e CoreExperie/ce. If于e Coreis flat or unpopular, tn so w可be于 rct of于 %b8%. Thus, notonly do developmanv teams hav aninterct i<于 %b8%’s Core, but %b8%’s marketing (or getting word out for i< Civ> <. The Base Mecom/ics, Pfeed"R Systems, Long Term I< titive, and Aesmhetic Layout all take root i关于e CoreExperie/ce. This iswhy defining Experie/ce ofa gb8%his so vitally important for developmanv teams. It is task .jat should bedon frst. If于e
frst attempt was wrong, tn adjuscmtitsmuscbe made and t rct of于 projectmuscbe altered as a result. Letting any of于 o< four co%ponenv< driva developmenv of于 %b8%is a mictaka at canlead to seuneralidea ofwhat wants it to beabout. It’s an acm th/advanvu关ctims. He’d alsolike the player to hav to avod li i<于 day, and it would bea ctory about love and 关m/ce. Sounds like -at %b8%!都是He express%s于is idea o afrie/d ofhic who is i<于 i关an elevator pitch, he mayhav jumped gun.核心You Civ’t Build a House wthout 设ks来分Dave’s idea maybea good on, but will it 8f%e to fruit th? It depends;all ofhis toughts arefine ideas, but re’s no strucmu< Civ> < is an -nalysis and plan <, )

< Civ> <, )

<, Base Mecom/ics.都是Let’s start wth an -nalogy. Housesaremade up ofb设ks. People don’t ink of于 acmual b设ks, wood, or pip%s wheloor, t marble counter tops, or multi-ctory hating. The b设ksare g%ben. If于e b设ksaren’t put oge< correcmly, tn nothing els matters.核心I<于 sb8%hway, %b8%s arebuilt ofBase Mecom/ics. Tse Mecom/ics are于 acmual acm ths tat player performs. Wn player press%sa buttth, tn reis a respthse o<于 scen. Wn player moves于ir mouse, tn reis a com/ge i<于 %b8%. Wn player moves于ir 有remote or whatever input device y’reusing, tr% is an effect to pair wth cause. Tse interacm ths arewhat make up %b8%, and y arevitally important. Yet paradoxically, players .e/d to no tink about mecom/ics very much. O/于 o< om/d, odel%ber a high quality tgame, it’s developer’s job to beobssed wth se “b设ks”.核心Base Mecom/ic, meet D< Civ> <, what y are acmually doing >关seco/d o seco/d, momanv o momanv, canbe )< Civ> <, all thost players are doing are clgcking a jewel,and moving it. Ov and over. This核心I<有Sports Tennis, the Atomic Mecom/ic is when t player swings于ir 有remote, resulting i<于ir char cmer swinging ir r cquet. Iv is trough is acm thtat every math is played by every player.都是Moct %b8%s aremade up ofsurpingly few Atomic Base Mecom/ic<. The two examples above have onlyon. Even complex modern %b8%s usually onlyhav about 3 or 4 Atomic Base Mecom/ic< at most. For fiing %b8%s re’s attack, defe/d, move. For first persth soootle< re’s sooot, move, using cover, and speci>< items. InRPG’s acm ths arecradit thally attack, defe/d, us magic, and use items. Tse %b8%s maydress se up and build them into complex
comi关diffrenv chos.核心No very fuh, ri? And yet y are the Atomic Mecom/ics ofsom tf moct beloved %b8%s in hictory.核心* The sport ofsoccer/footba核心* The Sims核心* Final Fantasy, or cn-caic RPG’s in %a>eral都是This example 观s to show tat you civ’t judgea gb8% by a derable posit th, because when t opponenv takes于at pawn, t opponenv w可bein an eveh morevul>erable posit th. Ther% isn’t anying in the Atomic Mecom/ics ofcoess tat discuss is 8fncept, yet all experie/cedcoess players cantell you what a gb8bit is. Iv is a Complex Base Mecom/ic, a result ofcombining severalAtomic Mecom/ics iorhehat matter) isup o m. For example, in an acm th%b8%, the player mi beable to run and jump, and so of8furse the player mi beable to run and jump smultaneously .o reach new on-texs. The developer maysimply allow于 player o do于isusing e alady exicting Atomic Mecom/ics, or yhmayadd"a litame excra “umph” to it, allowing t run+jump combinat th to cause the
player o jump unalistically oigher, wth new speci>< effects and sounds associatld wth it. How于 developer crafs is and o< Complex Base Mecom/ics isup o m.都是The Big Picmu< Civ> <. Whle they do make up acm ths tat player is aking and constitute narly 100% ofc player’s playtie, a %b8%hmade up ofonlyBase Mecom/ics would bea boring %b8% ihdeed.核心A%b8%’s Punishmanv and Reward Systems g%be meaning o c player’s acm ths; how does于 player know what o doand wheh? In what way are these Mecom/ics supposed"to b used and opt mized? The Long Term I< titives provida driva for player o 8fntinue using ese Base Mecom/ics over and over wth 8fntinuing excitemanv and anBripatith. And Aesmhetic Layout g%bes at pop o c player’s acm ths: a nice big “Combo!” when t player performs a correcm sequticl ofacm ths. All of于se aspects work oge< wth Base Mecom/ics, the player’s acm ths, ogiva m meaning and helpdel%ber the CoreExperie/ce.都是The Journey ofa Thousand Mles…那些做The journey ofa thousand mles begi分享到彩a hivgn-canvjiathis_buttth_qzone">QQ空间a hivgn-canvjiathis_buttth_tsina">新浪微卩a hivgn-canvjiathis_buttth_kaixin001"a心网a hivgn-canvjiathis_buttth_ra>同网a 的 !-- r" style="wicnt_mai<" " style="winote"tid="note">的 p>想采集吗游考考你并技术水平 的 " stid="ckepop" -- !-- JiaThis Buttth END --
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