游戏邦在:
杂志专栏:
gamerboom.com订阅到鲜果订阅到抓虾google reader订阅到有道订阅到QQ邮箱订阅到帮看

创业游戏开发者应该回避的3种错误

发布时间:2013-12-09 14:00:22 Tags:,,,

作者:Zachary Strebeck

错误1:没有计划地创业

对于任何企业来说,商业计划都是一个宝贵的工具,其中包括游戏开发类型。但通常情况下,开发者会通过Kickstarter等大众融资网站开启一个项目,但却缺乏明确的项目开发成本理念。如果提出了合理的计划和商业建议,也许就能避免潜在的成本超支、延迟和其他惨败情况。

合适拟稿的商业计划应该分条列点,囊括项目特定方面的内容。计划文化应该先进行一段概括,简单述项目理念,让读者在第一页能领会项目大意。接下来就要描述项目情况,以及该项目所属行业。该文件应该描述你将如何令项目盈利。这可以是任何一种合理的商业模式,只要其描述足够详细,能够令读者理解其运行方式即可。

接下来就要描述你的产品所瞄准的市场,以及你将如何走向该市场的计划。这里应该提到定价和分销,以及如何向市场宣传和推广产品。商业计划的内容可能远不止如此,但提到项目将如何运行及获得成功的关键则是其中不可或缺的环节。

商业计划有助于制定下一步的运营战略,帮助起草合作协议,在筹资的时候也可以给投资者看。对于任何项目或公司来说,这个计划阶段都是避免未来麻烦的一个重要步骤。

business-plan(from candocareersolutions)

business-plan(from candocareersolutions)

错误2:没有协议就合作

一群朋友为了自己制作一款游戏的理念而走到一起的情况并不鲜见。但他们一开始时通常都没有签署任何协议,想当然地认为可以在之后再商讨细节或者认为这些细节根本就不重要。但正是这些细节可能毁坏一个项目或一段友情。例如:

*如果他们一起制作的游戏开始盈利了会发生什么情况?

*如果团队中每个成员所做的工作量大小并不一致又会如何?

*如果大家陷入了一个重要的游戏设计决策僵局时又该如何?谁来主掌大权?

所以对所有成员来说,决定财富的分配方式,以及由谁来主导大权相当关键。团队要事先明确各自分工。从法律上来说,如果事先没签协议,团队成员就要共同分配盈利和承担亏损。投票亦是如此,每个合伙人都可以获得同样的投票权。如果有一名合伙人做了90%的工作,他理所当然会认为自己该得到最多钱。但如果没有事先明确协议,情况就不是如此了。

错误3:在非独立企业单位的情况下筹资

无论你是通过Kickstarter这类融资网站,还是通过交易股权或其他抵押物的情况下集资,如果没有事先成立一个独立企业单位,那就可能会在事后酿成许多麻烦。我们也经常听说有些大众融资项目垮台,让投资者或支持者空手而归并对簿公堂的案例。为此,如果项目是独资经营的话,项目创始人就应当个人承担投资者的亏损。

在这种情况下,独立企业的益处就可以派上大用场了。一家企业无论是公司还是有限责任企业,都会产生企业主或成员的有限责任,这通常要取决于创业者在公司投入中的大小。如果是非独立企业,那么运行公司的成员就可能因为项目损害而赔偿自有资金。这个结果对于个人来说是极为有害的。

总结

对于创意人士而言,游戏设计之初并不会出现上述问题。但是事先做一些准备总能够未雨绸缪,以便将来的开发过程出现不未要的问题。在事态还不算严重之前,一定要选择咨询当地的行业律师。(本文为游戏邦/gamerboom.com编译,拒绝任何不保留版权的转载,如需转载请联系:游戏邦

The three mistakes every game developer should avoid when starting out

by Zachary Strebeck

The following blog post, unless otherwise noted, was written by a member of Gamasutra’s community.

The thoughts and opinions expressed are those of the writer and not Gamasutra or its parent company.

Mistake #1 – Going into business without a plan

A business plan is a valuable tool for any business venture, including all types of game development. Too often, developers start a project on crowdfunding sites like Kickstarter without a clear idea of what the development of the project will actually cost. Cost overruns, delays, and other catastrophes can potentially be avoided with proper planning and business advice.

A properly drafted business plan should have several sections that cover certain aspects of the proposed business. The plan document should start with a summary of what is to come, letting anyone who reads it see the big picture on page one. Next should be a description of the business and the industry that the business will be a part of. The document should then describe how you plan to profit with the endeavor. This can be any business model that makes sense, as long as it is described in enough detail to convince someone who reads it that it can work.
Cost overruns, delays, and other catastrophes can potentially be avoided with proper planning and business advice.

The market for the product and how you plan to appeal to that market should be addressed next. Pricing and distribution should also be touched on, along with how the product will be advertised and promoted in the marketplace. There can be much more to the business plan, but the bare bones of how the business will function and succeed as laid out above are the minimum to get started.

Once completed, the business plan can be used to craft the business strategy going forward, help in drafting partnership agreements, and to show investors when seeking funding. This planning phase is invaluable in avoiding future trouble for any project or business.

Mistake #2 – Going into a partnership without an agreement

It is not uncommon for a group of friends to get together with the idea that they will make a game. Often they get started without creating any kind of written agreement, either assuming that they will sort out the details later or that the details aren’t important at all. These details, however, can make or break a project or a friendship. For instance:

What happens when the game that they created together becomes profitable?

What if the amount of work done by each member of the group was not equal?

What if there is an impasse over an important game design decision? Who is in control?

If one partner is doing 90% of the work, then they would naturally expect to get most of the money.

Deciding how the money should get split up and who controls what is imperative for all partnerships. The roles must be defined before any work is completed. Legally, absent an agreement, profits and losses in a partnership are split equally among the partners. The same goes for voting, with each partner getting an equal vote. If one partner is doing 90% of the work, then they would naturally expect to get most of the money. Without a prior written agreement, this would not be the case.

Mistake #3 – Raising money without a separate business entity

Whether you are using crowdfunding sites like Kickstarter, or raising money in exchange for equity or other securities, attempting to raise capital without first creating a separate business entity could lead to a lot of trouble if something goes wrong. It is not unheard of for a crowdfunded project to go belly-up, leaving backers or investors empty handed and ready to litigate. In that case, the project creator may be personally liable for the losses to the backers if the project was run as a sole proprietorship.

The benefits of a separate entity are very helpful in such a situation. The entity, whether a corporation or an LLC, creates a limited liability for the owners or members, usually up to the amount that they have put into the business. If there is no separate entity, then the people running the business can have their own funds liable for the damages. The results could be disastrous for an individual.

For more information about the benefits of having a separate business entity, check out my blog post on the subject.

Wrapping Up

For creative people, these are not usually the issues that come up in the initial excitement of game design. However, a little work up front can save a ton of headache later, especially if something goes wrong during development. Consult your local game attorney for consultation and advice before things get too far along.(source:gamasutra


上一篇:

下一篇: